Demystifying HDMI Audio De-embedding

There is a lot of misinformation about this topic, even more so now that HDMI carrying 4K/UHD with HD Audio and 3D surround sound is becoming common. So let’s try to remove the confusion by first considering how audio is sent as part of an HDMI connection.

HDMI Audio: Bitstream or PCM?

Many source devices, such as Blu-ray Players and STB (Set Top Boxes), have an audio output setting for their HDMI port that allows a choice of Bitstream or PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) format to suit the equipment it is connected to.

Bitstream is a serial digital signal that contains two or more channels of audio. It is very similar to the signal used by S/PDIF optical or co-axial ports (Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format) but because it is transported by HDMI it can far exceed the S/PDIF bandwidth of just 640kbps.

While S/PDIF bandwidth is sufficient for uncompressed 2-channel stereo or compressed 5.1 surround sound (Dolby Digital or DTS encoding) any higher quality surround sound formats (HD Audio or 3D Audio) that need more bandwidth must always use an HDMI connection.

PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) is the general term for a lossless digital audio format. Because it is not compressed it needs more bandwidth than lossy encoded formats, but has the advantage that the receiving device does not need to decode the audio for playback……….

Want to read on?

De-embedding demystified by RGB

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Demystifying AV Over IP

By David Webster, CTO at RGB

The phrase “AV over IP” has become very popular of late and it is an abbreviation of “Audio and Video over Internet Protocol” but what does it really mean in practical AV terms?

Put simply, AV Over IP is about sending audio and video signals though standard networks. This process uses devices called encoders to convert analogue or digital audio and video into data that can be sent (streamed) across a standard Ethernet network to a decoder device that converts the received data back to audio and video signals.

AV Over IP solutions for audio and video have been around for many years but only recently has the latest hurdle of flawless 4K/UHD video been surmounted.

This makes possible products that are capable of high quality video distribution between rooms, buildings, or even further just as freely as computer data, but what are the practical, technical and economic considerations?

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Uncovering the truth about 4K!


By David Webster, CTO, RGB Communications

More than just another resolution?

There are many ways to improve picture quality; one is to display images with a 4K/UHD resolution, where there are four times more pixels than HD on the screen. Another is High Dynamic Range (or HDR) which helps produce ‘better’ pixels.

Transitioning to HDR TV is the biggest change to television since the introduction of colour 50 years ago.

Are you ready for 4K/UHD & HDR?

The latest 4K/UHD content with HDR brings with it demands for switching and distribution systems that not only deliver digital video signals with the highest bandwidth yet but must also comply with industry standard copy protection measures.

To enable you to better understand these new technologies, the issues and the solutions, RGB have published “4K Uncovered” – available now to download here for free – and introduced a new training course at RGB Academy.

New “4K & HDR Essentials” training course

This one-day course will introduce you to 4K/UHD and HDR basics, switching and distribution, installing and troubleshooting.

It is suitable for sales or technical people wishing to learn the essentials of HDMI matrix switching and long distance transmission of 4K and HDR video.

Did you know that 4K/UHD products currently use one of three HDMI connectivity standards:

4K/UHD Video “Lite”
(10.2 Gbps)
4K/UHD Video “HDR”
(18 Gbps)
HDMI 1.4 or 2.0a/b with no HDCP


HDMI 1.4 with HDCP 2.2


HDMI 2.0a/b with HDCP 2.2



Find out more by reading “4K Uncovered” today!”



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Lost and found…

Lost and found…
– Thursday 19th January 2017
By David Alexander, Senior Technical Support Engineer

No one likes to lose things or have things taken from them and recovery of such items can be achieved through tracking devices.

Tracking devices have been around for some time and come in various forms… Car tracking devices are the most common and can either be a high powered radio beacon that relates on knowing the approximate location or a 3G enabled GPS device that can send GPS coordinates to a third party company on a regular basis. Even smartphones which are GPS enabled come with recovery tools such as Apple’s ‘Find My iPhone’ utility. However, requiring a high power battery or 3G connectivity is not suitable for all devices that you wish to keep such as a bicycle or a pet for example. Some devices can also require an annual fee.

Recently I joined the ‘lost drone society’ with the help of a large hedgerow. As my drone is small, light weight with a battery that gives an 8-minute flight time I sought a tracking solution that would help me find it when within close proximity without affecting the drone’s ability. I found a small Bluetooth 4.0 enabled device called ‘TrackR bravo’ which is the size of a 10 pence piece, weighs only 25g, has a replaceable battery and costs around £25.00.

The TrackR bravo has an App where you register your device in an online account. Once registered your devices can be located by anyone else using the TrackR App automatically using a technology called ‘Crowd GPS’ and it’s completely free! Once you are within 100ft of your lost item you can then use the Bluetooth hotter/colder searching to pinpoint the exact location. TrackR also offer multiple solutions using the same technology such as the TrackR wallet so if you are prone to losing things these could also be the solution for you.

More information can be found here: https://www.thetrackr.comdave-a-blog-1


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Have a Merry Connected Christmas

Have a Merry Connected Christmas
By David Webster, RGB’s Chief Technology Officer
– Thursday 1st December 2016

IoT (Internet of Things) connected devices can achieve some astonishing things for an entry level system and they will help build the future business pipeline for our pro custom installers…

There are now a significant number of smarthome products that can easily connect together to create a more convenient, safer and secure home. Most are DIY and available at affordable prices making this the perfect entry level for consumers (and generate future business by priming their expectations of what an upgrade to a full custom installation could do for them).

Using IoT technology, these products connect to each other via the cloud. Replacing complex setup and programming with simple configuring to achieve new levels of integration and automation!

Let’s start with Nest: You can install the Nest Learning Thermostat to save energy and increase thermal comfort, Nest Protect smoke and carbon monoxide detectors for improved safety, or Nest Cam indoors or Nest Cam Outdoors for added security. The Nest devices can tell when you’re home or away and since they work with a vast amount of products from the official “Works with Nest” range, you can start to develop your connected home…

Add Philips Hue smart LED lamps: Connect with Nest so that when Nest notices the house is empty, your Hue lights can turn off to save energy. If your Nest Cam sees someone in an Activity Zone (like the back door) your hue lights can switch on to scare off intruders. And when you’re on holiday, your lights can automatically switch on and off randomly so it looks like you’re at home. As well as this, when Nest Protect senses smoke or carbon monoxide, your Hue lights can blink red to warn you and your family that there’s danger! Philips Hue lamps can also be set to gently wake you up by slowly fading on like an alarm making it easy to see and wake up in the morning.

Add Wemo plugin power switches: Off when you’re out, On when you’re home. Save energy when the house is empty. Or your plugin lights (table and floor lamps, xmas tree lights, etc.) can automatically turn on when you walk in the front door. Maybe use the Wemo app to set schedules, monitor energy consumption, and even randomise your lighting schedule to bamboozle weak-minded burglars (just like the kid from “Home Alone”).

Controlling lots of connected devices with one or more apps on your phone or tablet is great fun but not always the most convenient. Sometimes all you really need is a wall switch, or a remote control handset. For example the new Logitech Pop push button (a Bluetooth wireless device) opens your smarthome to everyone. It can be configured with up to three custom commands (push, double-push, push and hold) to control Hue smart lighting, Sonos music, and much more. For example stick one on the wall by the room door to easily turn off everything in the room as you leave.

But my favourite interactions with connected homes is through voice commands. It really feels like you’re living in the future! So now that the Amazon Echo and Dot are available in the UK, Nest owners can say things like “Alexa, set my hallway to 22 degrees” and Hue owners can say “Alexa, turn off all Hue lights” or “dim living room to 50 percent” to set your Hue lights from the sofa to watch a movie – all without lifting a finger!

Alexa can also learn other new Skills. So soon in 2017 you’ll be able to say “Alexa, tell the thermostat that I’m too hot.” Or ask about the temperature and humidity. Or choose music to play on your Sonos system. Or even tell it that you’re leaving.

For the more enthusiastic DIY “Connectsmith” consider adding the Logitech Harmony universal home remote control that will soon have an Alexa skill to voice control AV equipment, or Samsung SmartThings hub, sensors and devices to monitor, schedule and automate even more. (Via a variety of IP, ZigBee and Z-Wave devices).

Perhaps though you are more DIFM (Do It For Me) than DIY? In that case the professionally installed Savant Pro Remote system is for you! Surely this is the ultimate choice in luxury home automation. It gives you control of all your entertainment, lighting, and climate, from a compact, elegant touch screen remote control or a single App. Team a Savant control system with a Lutron Homeworks QS lighting control system to add the very best experience of whole home lighting and motorized window shading. Once installed, you can have fun setting up your personal “favourite scenes” to recall at will or by an automated schedule. (Even existing HomeworksQS systems can be upgraded to control Nest Thermostats and be voice controlled by Alexa with the Lutron Connect Bridge).

TIP: There are a growing number of smart devices available to buy but many are “island solutions” i.e. they do one or two jobs only and don’t connect well with others. For now these are probably best avoided in favour of devices that are certified as “Works with Nest” or “Works with Alexa” etc., but be aware that even these products may not always offer all the functionality you might have expected!

Have fun with all these new toys and I wish you a Merry Connected Christmas!




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Amazon Echo and SmartHomes


Amazon Echo and SmartHomes
By David Webster, RGB’s Chief Technology Officer
Wednesday 26th October 2016

Now that Amazon have released the Echo and Echo Dot (2nd Generation) devices for the UK, it is worth considering how this will impact on how home owners can now interact with their SmartHomes…

The Amazon Alexa voice assistant is very good (but not perfect) at recognising spoken commands and can act on many of them directly. For example playing music, listening to radio, weather forecasts, shopping lists, alarms, etc. However Amazon have created a way for Alexa to communicate with many other devices and information or content services by means of software extensions known as “Skills”. Using the Alexa App, it is an easy matter to browse all the available third party skills and to enable them for use. For example there is a Nest Skill that allows Alexa to cleverly set the Nest Thermostat temperature with spoken commands. I can report that this works well, but the spoken commands have to be said in a way that Alexa can understand. It took me a while to discover that even when you have only a single Nest Thermostat, Alexa insists that you reference it by its own name and not by “temperature” or “Nest”. In my case I had given the Nest Thermostat the name “Hallway” when I had set it up with the Nest App, and this is what Alex expects me to use for sending it voice commands. So now to set the temperature I can say “Alexa set Hallway to 22 degrees” and it will do so and then confirm the action with the Alexa voice. (By the way the voice synthesis is extremely natural sounding – even on the smaller speaker in the Echo Dot).

Other SmartHome Skills already available include Philips Hue, Hive, WeMo, Samsung SmartThings with more to follow. Sonos Skills are scheduled for 2017 and many others such as Lutron Homeworks QS are expected soon.

I can understand that some people will question the usefulness of all this and that it is already possible to do similar voice control tasks with their phones but this rather misses the point – Amazon Echo is capable of working at a distance from the person speaking. This makes using Alexa so much more convenient, natural and accessible. For those users that are technophobic (I can think of a few) or incapable of using a phone or tablet, a world of control is now possible to them for the first time and the implications for Alexa in assisted living environments are very clear.

Perhaps the most surprising thing about the Echo devices, is not so much how well the technology works (remarkable though this is) but more the fact that they are so affordable. For general and smarthome VUI (Voice User Interface) applications the Echo Dot at £49.99 it is not unthinkable to have one of these devices in every room of the home!


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The future is in Biometrics

The future is in Biometrics
By Matthew Baxter, RGB’s Product Marketing Executive
– Tuesday 4th October 2016

Technology has come on leaps and bounds in the last 10 years. In 1996, who would have thought we’d all be carrying around powerful, pocket-sized computers that are capable of not only making calls, but taking photos, doing your grocery shopping, keeping track of your health and even diagnosing leaky windows (apparently)!

There is so much technology that has come on such a long way in the last 10 years, let alone in the last 100 or more. Technology exists today where you can use your fingerprint, iris, or you face to identify you and this is called ‘Biometrics’. Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people’s physical and behavioural characteristics. The technology is mainly used for identification and access control, or for identifying individuals that are under surveillance.

Biometric technology isn’t just something out of a James Bond film, but is widely available to the consumer market today. Apple has included fingerprint recognition feature which allows users to unlock their device, as well as make purchases in the various Apple digital media stores.

Today, Biometric technology is more compact, more affordable and has cleverer features than ever before. When combined with a control system, you can even programme different fingers to trigger different actions upon entering a building, such a light settings and music.

Maybe it’s time for the lock and key mechanism invented by Yale in 1861 to move one like the rest of modern technology has. The future is in Biometrics. Also, you’re a lot more likely to lose your keys than you are your finger!

Image result for fingerprint


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